About 530 million tonnes of waste is generated annually during construction and demolition of buildings. This may consist of concrete, wood, metals, plastics ,glass, solvents, asbestos, and a range of other materials which may be hazardous to the environment. To tackle the waste management and pollution issues effectively, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change notified the Construction & Demolition Waste Management Rules, 2016 on 29 March 2016.
- To prevent environmental pollution due to construction and demolition waste
- To give thrust to segregation, recovery, reuse, recycle at source
- To address in detail the management of construction and demolition waste
To every waste resulting from construction, re-modeling, repair and demolition of any civil structure of individual or organization or authority who generates construction and demolition waste such as building materials, debris, rubble.
- Construction: The process of formation of a building or changing the physical structure of a building.
- Construction and demolition waste: All the waste generated during the processes of construction, re-modeling, repair and demolition of any structure, which includes building materials, debris, and rubble.
- Demolition : The destruction of buildings and other structures through manual means or through the usage of mechanical force (by various equipment) or explosives.
- De-construction : It is a process in which only a part of the building or any other structure is demolished and it involves maximum recycling and reuse of the waste generated.
- Local authority: Refers to local bodies such as municipal corporations, municipalities, Nagarpalikas, Nagarnigams, Nagar panchayats, municipal councils, gram panchayats who are also responsible for construction and demolition waste management.
- Service provider: Essential services such as water, sewerage, electricity, telephone, roads, drainage are provided by certain authorities which are known as service providers.
- Waste generator : Any individual, group of individuals, institutional, residential and commercial establishments which are engaged in the construction and demolition activities are known as waste generators.
Duties and Responsibilities of Stakeholders
a) Waste generator
- The construction and demolition wastes must not be allowed to mix up with the other wastes and its storage and disposal must be performed separately.
- Waste should be segregated into four streams such as concrete, soil, steel, wood and plastics, bricks and mortar and a waste management plan should be submitted and approved by the local authorities before beginning construction or demolition work.
- Charges will be imposed on every waste generator for the collection, transportation, processing and disposal of construction and demolition waste.
b) Service Providers and contractors
- A waste management plan should be prepared within six months by the service providers which includes segregation, storage, collection, reuse, recycling, transportation and disposal of construction and demolition waste.
- All the construction and demolition waste should be cleared by the service providers every day.
c) Local Authority
After the construction and demolition activities are done, the local authorities should come up with the stages, methodology and equipment, materials involved in the overall activity and final clean up of the waste.
In case the construction and demolition waste is contaminated with hazardous materials from other wastes, the local authorities should take assistance from the concerned authorities for its disposal in an eco-friendly manner.
d) State Pollution Control Board/ Pollution Control Committee
The enforcement of these rules by the local bodies will be supervised by the State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee and the Central Pollution Control Board and the State Government or Union Territory should both receive the annual report from the SPCB/PCC .
e) State Government or Union Territory Administration
A policy document regarding the proper management of construction or demolition waste must be prepared by the Secretary in-charge of development in the State Government or Union territory administration. Proper sites must be provided for establishment of the storage, processing and recycling facilities for management of construction and demolition waste.
f) Central Pollution Control Board
The construction and demolition waste management operational guidelines should be prepared by the Central Pollution Control Board. These rules must be reviewed by Central Pollution Control Board at regular intervals through analysis of the data received from the State Pollution Control Boards or Pollution Control Committees.
g) Bureau of Indian Standards and Indian Roads Congress
The preparation of code of practices and standards for use of recycled materials and construction and demolition waste should be done by the Bureau of Indian Standards and Indian Roads Congress. Roads shall be constructed as per the standards by the Indian Road Congress.
h) Central Government
The Ministry of Urban Development, and the Ministry of Rural Development, Ministry of Panchayat Raj help in the enforcement of these rules by the local bodies. The implementation of these rules must be reviewed by The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change as per their requirement.
Criteria for site selection for Storage, Processing or Recycling Facilities
Construction and demolition waste shall be utilized in sanitary landfill for municipal solid waste of the city. Residues from construction and demolition waste processing or recycling industries shall be land filled in the sanitary landfill for solid waste.
- The processing or recycling shall be large enough to last for 20-25 years
- The processing or recycling site shall be away from habitation clusters, forest areas, waterbodies, monuments, National Parks, Wetlands and places of important cultural, historical or religious interest.
- A buffer zone of no development shall be maintained around solid waste processing and disposal facility, exceeding five Tonnes per day of installed capacity.
- A vegetative boundary shall be made around Processing or Recycling plant or site to strengthen the buffer zone
Application of materials made from construction and demolition waste and its products
|1.||Drainage layer in leachate collection system at bottom of Sanitary Landfill Gas Collection Layer |
Drainage Layer in top Cover System above Sanitary Landfill Gas Collection Layer Drainage layer at the top for capping of sanitary landfill
|Only crushed and graded hard material (stone, concrete etc.) shall be used having coarse sand size graded material (2mm – 4.75mm standard sieve size). Since the coarse sand particles will be angular in shape, layers of protection made of non-woven geo-textiles may be provided as per the requirement.|
|2.||Daily cover||Very small particles (size up to 2 mm) from the processing of construction and demolition waste may be used for covering the fresh waste daily. Use of construction and demolition These small particles from C& D waste must be used for covering landfills wherever available instead of using fresh soil or digging up borrow pits. Exceptional case – During the construction of the same landfill, the soil need to be excavated. Dust problems caused due to the blowing away of the construction and demolition waste particles covering the landfill may be reduced by covering it with the local soil for limited period .|
|3.||Civil construction in a sanitary landfill||Construction and demolition waste may also be utilised for purposes of civil construction, for e.g.: kerb stones, drain covers, paving blocks in pedestrian areas.|
Timeframe for Planning and Implementation of these rules
|Sl.No.||Compliance Criteria||Cities with population of 01 million and above||Cities with population of 0.5-01 million||Cities with population of less than 0.5 million|
|1.||Formulation of policy by State Government||12 months||12 months||12 months|
|2.||Identification of sites for collection and processing facility||18 months||18 months||18 months|
|3.||Commissioning and implementation of the facility||18 months||24 months||36 months|
|4.||Monitoring by SPCBs||3 times a year – once in 4 months||2 times a year – once in 6 months||2 times a year – once in 6 months|
Non-compliance Penalties and Procedures
Punishments may be imposed on those who violate these rules or those who neglect their duties as given under these rules.